Russian Alphabet

Russian alphabet

Russian alphabet is a form of the Cyrillic script. Around 863 year, the brothers Cyril and Methodius regularized the writing for the Slavic language. The appearance of the Cyrillic alphabet relates to the activities of the Bulgarian School of scribes (after Cyril and Methodius).

Modern Russian alphabet contains thirty-three letters from 1918. Before 1918 the Russian alphabet had thirty-five letters. Letters Е and Ё were considered to be a one letter, И and Й were also considered to be a one letter.

Large letter

Small letter

Handwriting

Transcription

English example

А

а

Russian alphabet A

/a/

father

Б

б

Russian alphabet B

/b/

bear

В

в

Russian alphabet V /v/

victoria

Г

г

Russian alphabet G

/ɡ/

go

Д

д

Russian alphabet D

/d/

do

Е

е

Russian alphabet E

/je/

yet

Ё

ё

Russian alphabet YO

/jo/

yoga

Ж

ж

Russian alphabet ZE

/ʐ/

pleasure

З

з

Russian alphabet Z 

/z/

zero

И

и

Russian alphabet I

/i/

be

Й

й

Russian alphabet IY

/j/

yes

К

к

Russian alphabet K

/k/

kick

Л

л

Russian alphabet L

/l/

label

М

м

Russian alphabet M

/m/

make

Н

н

Russian alphabet N

/n/

not

О

о

Russian alphabet O

/o/

more

П

п

Russian alphabet P

/p/

spell

Р

р

Russian alphabet R

/r/

rolled r

С

с

Russian alphabet S

/s/

see

Т

т

Russian alphabet T

/t/

stop

У

у

Russian alphabet U

/u/

mood

Ф

ф

Russian alphabet F

/f/

face

Х

х

Russian alphabet H

/x/

ugh

Ц

ц

Russian alphabet TSE

/ts/

sits

Ч

ч

Russian alphabet CH

/t͡ɕ/

chip

Ш

ш

Russian alphabet SH

/ʂ/

shut

Щ

щ

Russian alphabet SCH

/ɕɕ/

sheer

Ъ

ъ

Russian alphabet tv znak  

hard sign

Ы

ы

Russian alphabet Y

[ɨ]

silly (close central unrounded vowel)

Ь

ь

Russian alphabet m znak

/ ʲ/

soft sign

Э

э

Russian alphabet UE

/e/

met

Ю

ю

Russian alphabet UY

/ju/

union

Я

я

Russian alphabet YA

/ja/

yard

Hard sign Ъ is put after a consonant. Today it is used mostly to separate a prefix from the following root.

Soft sign Ь indicates that the preceding consonant is palatalized. This is important as palatalization is phonemic in Russian language. For example, мать [matʲ] (mother) and мат [mat] (filthy language).

In Russian language, word stress is mostly unpredictable and can fall on different syllables in different forms of the same word. Stress mark is placed over the vowel latters like а́, é, и́, ó, у́, ы́, э́, ю́, я́. If the word has the letter ё, the stress always falls on this letter.

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